Not possible to start a Cadet Corps at Wallingford Grammar School

Many teachers were absent serving their country.


Secondary Schools

WALLINGFORD COUNTY GRAMMAR SCHOOL.

The Governors have considered the question of the formation of a Cadet Company in connexion with the school, but have decided, in view of the present shortage of staff and the many calls on the time of the Head Master, that it is not possible to adopt the proposal at the present time….

BURSARS AND STUDENT TEACHERS

Of ten Student Teachers whose engagements terminate on 31 July, one is already on Military Service … and one is due for Military Service.

Report of the Higher Education Sub-committee to Berkshire Education Committee, 13 July 1918 (C/CL/C1/1/21)

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Bring your own potatoes

Pupils learning to cook during the war had to use potatoes for pastry dough.

28 May 1918

Cookery: Course I. N. Moreton 5. S. Moreton 8. Wallingford C.E. 5

No. 12

Date: May 28th
Time: 1.45-4pm

Lesson: Shortcrust pastry. Tarts [alternative]

No. present: 8

Signature: R. D. Bronsdon.

Girls brought own potatoes for pastry.

Wallingford Cookery Centre Log Book, 1914-1920 (SCH22/8/5, pp. 169-170)

Both scout and cadet training should form part of the ordinary curriculum

Berkshire teenagers, whether they were still at school or had left to start work at 14, were encouraged to undertake semi-military training in cadet corps.

The following letters have been referred to us for consideration, viz:

9/3/18, from the Secretary of the County Territorial Association to the Secretary of the Berks Education Committee.
23/3/18, from General Sir R Scallon (Director General’s Department, War Office) to the said Association.
2/4/18, from General Sir H Sclater (GOC in C Southern Command) to the same.

The general effect of these letters is as follows, viz: The
Education Committee are specifically asked:

To give official recognition to the Cadet Companies already raised in the County Boys’ Schools of Windsor and Maidenhead, both of which units are recognised by the War Office and are affiliated to the 4th Royal Berks Regiment.

(Note – It is to be noted that the only other cadet units so recognised by the War Office as operating in the county are The Douai Cadet Company, affiliated to the 4th Royal Berks, and the 2nd and 4th Oxford Cadet CLB Battalions, both affiliated to the KRR. The Reading Cadet Company, affiliated to the 4th Royal Berks, is also mentioned as recognised, but this unit draws its recruits from the Borough rather than the County area.)

To urge upon other school masters the importance of raising cadet companies “in the schools throughout the County”.

It is, further, strongly recommended that a Committee should be formed in the County (Sir Robert Scallon suggesting that the Education Committee should undertake the formation of it) with a view to the development of the cadet movement. This Committee would be composed of the Director of Education (i.e. the Education Secretary), of leading gentlemen in the County who are interested in the movement, of employers of boy labour, of the secretary and representative of the Territorial Association, and of representatives of the volunteers and of labour interests. The functions of the Committee would be the encouragement and co-ordination of cadet corps, boy scouts, wolf cubs, and similar organisations, and would also have regard to boys outside any existing organisation. The Committee would not interfere with existing units. Sir H Sclater remarks that a Committee of this kind has been formed for Worcestershire and that it is doing excellent work.

It is pointed out that “the cadet movement is not a military one”, the aim being “the improvement both in character and physique of the boys”. Organised games should form a large part of the training.
Boys, it is considered by the War Office, should be encouraged to be scouts until aged 14 or 15; they should be cadets until 17, when “they might join Section C or the Volunteers if they are so willing”. Scouts wishing to be cadets need not cease to be scouts.
With regard to secondary schools, the writers suggest that both scout and cadet training should form part of the ordinary curriculum; also that school units should as a rule be grouped together, and not form part of either an adult unit nor of a cadet corps composed of boys who have ceased to attend school.
Corps composed of several school units should come together for the yearly Battalion camp, and be under the command of a suitably qualified man, whether a military officer or not.

We are not clear what “official recognition” of existing cadet companies would imply, or what expenditure by the Local Authority would be involved, or how far this could be legally incurred. Moreover, we are disposed to think that any recognition afforded to cadets should be available for scouts…

The Local Education Authority have no authority over secondary schools not maintained by them. Of boys’ schools so maintained, Wallingford School is the only one without a cadet unit. We recommend that the question of the formation of a cadet company at that school be brought to the notice of the governors with a view to their favourable consideration.

We think that such a Committee as is suggested might do good spade-work locally… Whether the Education Committee should take the lead in this matter, or whether it should be left to the Territorial Association is a matter for consideration. On the whole, having regard to the facts that the cadet movement is definitely non-military and that the Local Education Authority is likely to have increasing opportunities of keeping in touch with the lads, the advantages of the former course seems to us to be greater. On the other hand, the work, if taken over by the Education Committee, must eventually throw greater burdens on a depleted and overworked staff, and the suggested constitution of the proposed committee hardly seems to secure to the Local Education Authority such a voice in the proceedings as would be necessary if public money, assigned for educational purposes, is to be expended.

Report of Cadet Training Sub-committee to Berkshire Education Committee, 27 April 1918 (C/CL/C1/1/21)

The best results are obtained only by getting into touch with the men personally

Thousands of wounded or sick troops had now returned home. the nation owed them support for their service. Some needed medical help, others re-training for new occupations, or help finding jobs.

The Disablements Sub-committee beg to report that they have been notified of approximately 2,524 disabled soldiers and sailors discharged into the county. Of the cases now entered upon the Register, which exclude those being investigated, the numbers specifying disabilities are as follows:

Amputation of leg or foot 51
Amputation of arm or hand 34
Other wounds or injuries to leg or foot 353
Other wounds or injuries to arm or hand 147
Other wounds or injuries to head 69
Other wounds or injuries 192
Blindness and other eye affections 77
Heart diseases 217
Chest complaints 93
Tuberculosis 101
Deafness and affections of the ear 72
Rheumatism 151
Epilepsy 37
Neurasthenia 47
Other mental affections 31
Other disabilities 532

Of this number all have been provided with a Medical Attendant [i.e. a doctor] under the National Health Insurance Act, and special treatment, including the supply or repair of artificial limbs and surgical appliances, has been provided in accordance with the recommendations of Military Authorities, Medical Boards or ordinary medical Attendants.

From the 1 April 1917, 280 cases have received Institutional treatment – both in and out-patient – at Military Hospitals, Civil Hospitals, Sanatoria, Cottage Hospitals or Convalescent Homes.
The total number of tuberculous soldiers and sailors to date is 101, and of these 72 have received Institutional treatment within the County under the County Scheme and three have received Institutional treatment outside the County Scheme. This treatment is provided through the County Insurance Committee.

The Committee has assisted with Buckinghamshire War Pensions Committee in the provision of a new wing for Orthopaedic Treatment at the King Edward VII Hospital, Windsor. This, which was urgently needed, and will be of the greatest benefit to men in that part of the county, will be opened in the course of two or three weeks. The Committee has also been instrumental with the Buckinghamshire Committee in obtaining the approval of the Minister of Pensions to a proposed Scheme for the provision, equipment, and establishment of a special hospital for totally disabled soldiers and sailors at Slough and an assurance from the Ministry of adequate fees for maintenance thereof. Her Royal Highness Princess Alice is forming a provisional Committee, and we have every hope that the proposed arrangements will e speedily carried into effect.
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Mr Snow’s steam-trolley

The railways might not be co-operating, but they had an ingenious solution in Wallingford.

Wallingford
1918, 5 March

Mr Snow’s steam-trolley took away 24 sacks of Horse-Chestnuts.

Aldermaston
5th March 1918

A war savings association was started this morning. 11 children became members.

Wallingford Boys Council School log book (SCH22/8/3); Aldermaston School log book (88/SCH/3/3, p. 83)

Helping the villagers to fill in forms for rationing

Two more schools were helping with the implementation of rationing, while Warfield children’s gathering of horse chestnuts had resulted in a bumper crop to turn into munitions. But not everyone was pulling together.

Sandhurst Methodist School
March 4th 1918

I (the master) was at the New hall, Sandhurst, this morning from 10-12, giving advice and help to villagers to fill in forms for rationing.

Newbury St Nicolas CE (Boys) School
8th March 1918

School closed for teachers to assist with Food forms.

Warfield CE School log book (C/EL26/3)
4th March 1918

The chestnuts collected by the scholars have been sent to the munitions works.


Wallingford
1918, 4 March

Sacks for chestnuts received this morning with letter from Minister of Propellants explaining that delay is due to Railway [?] neglect!


Log books of Sandhurst Methodist School Log Book (C/EL42/2, p. 161); Newbury St Nicolas CE (Boys) School (90/SCH/5/3, p. 41); Warfield CE School (C/EL26/3, p. 390); Wallingford Boys Council School (SCH22/8/3)

Demonstrations of War Time Cookery

The Education Committee was facing challenged with fewer teachers and more children (the latter due to the arrival of voluntary evacuees). They also encouraged cookery teachers to learn how to cope with food restrictions.

Report of the Higher Education Committee, 12 January 1918

Secondary Schools

MAIDENHEAD COUNTY BOYS’ SCHOOL
In consequence of the increased number of pupils and the difficulties caused by a further member of the staff leaving for military service, the Sub-committee have approved of the vacant place being filled by a whole-time Mistress and a part-time Master.

WALLINGFORD COUNTRY GRAMMAR SCHOOL

Mr Preece, one of the Assistants, has returned from military service, and in view of the increased numbers in attendance, the Sub-committee have authorised the retention of the substitute Mistress on the staff for the present.

Report of the School Management Sub-committee, 12 January 1918

WAR TIME COOKERY

The Domestic Subject Instructresses of the County attended on December 13 and 14 a series of demonstrations on War Time Cookery arranged by the Ministry of Food, who paid their expenses.

Berkshire County Council minutes (C/CL/C1/1/21)

The provision of light employment for discharged partially disabled men incapable of doing a full day’s work

The Disablements Sub-committee of the Berkshire War Pensions Committee reported on training programmes for disabled ex-soldiers, who faced an uncertain future.

The Disablements Sub-committee beg to report that the two schemes for training at Basildon and Windsor have now been approved by the Pensions Minister, with the exception of boot-making at Basildon, which is only provisionally sanctioned. The gardening course at Windsor has been extended from six to twelve months for suitable cases. Both schemes are now in full operation. Since the last meeting the Royal Warrant of April 1917 for treatment and training has come into force, payments being made under it as from 23 July 1917.

A list of hospitals throughout the county where treatment can be obtained for discharged men has been sent forward for approval to the Pensions Minister, also a special application for further necessary accommodation for out-patient treatment at King Edward VII Hospital, Windsor, to enable the authorities of that hospital to provide orthopaedic treatment for discharged disabled men within a radius of ten miles of that hospital. A special request was also put forward as regards the lack of hospital facilities in parts of North Berkshire, especially in the Wallingford District. It is proposed to formulate a scheme to include all facilities and arrangements for medical treatment and submit it as a whole for the approval of the Pensions Minister.

The National Health Insurance Commissioners have made new arrangements in respect of medical benefit for all discharged soldiers and sailors invalided from the Service, and have included those whose incomes do not exceed £160 per annum. Medical Practitioners are required to report to the Insurance Committee as to any special treatment to be provided by the Disablements Committee under the arrangements above alluded to. The scheme will also provide for any treatment recommended by a medical board for a man after his discharge, or for any man for whom treatment is recommended at the time of his discharge from the service by his invaliding board.

Instructions having been received from the Pensions Minister that discharged men who are not in receipt of a pension owing to the disability for which they were discharged not being considered attributable or aggravated by war service have now been afforded facilities for appealing against this decision. Instructions have been issued to all Sub-committees that such cases should be referred to this Committee. Three cases for appeal are coming up shortly for consideration.

The provision of light employment for discharged partially disabled men who are incapable of doing a full day’s work has been considered. A joint public appeal with the County Borough of Reading Committee has been issued through the Press to employers throughout the county for help in this important matter…

During the last three months 643 cases have been entered on the Register, making a total of 1,513 cases. In addition 325 cases (approximately) are being investigated. 512 new cases have been sent out to the various Sub-committees as follows:

Abingdon 34
Easthampstead 20
Faringdon 20
Hungerford 13
Lambourn 5
Maidenhead 72
Newbury 84
Reading Rural 43
Wallingford 27
Wantage 27
Windsor 95
Wokingham 52

220 cases have been considered by the Disablements Committee, treatment in hospital has been arranged for 62 cases, Sanatorium treatment for 7 cases, special training for 23 cases, and a number of men have been placed in employment.

12 November 1917

Berkshire County Council minutes, 1917 (C/CL1/1/21)

War Savings have fallen to the lowest level yet reached

Was enthusiasm for the war subsiding?

1917, 2 October

Receipts of War Savings Association have fallen to the lowest level yet reached.

Wallingford Boys Council School log book (SCH22/8/3, p. 63)

In a nervous state due to air raids

Air raids were traumatic for children, prompting some families to move out of targetted areas.

King Street School, Maidenhead
10th September 1917

Twelve children have been admitted from raid areas in London & elsewhere & in most cases parents stated children were in a nervous state or asked for special care & treatment while at school.

Abingdon Girls CE School
1917, 10th to 14th September

Ten girls came too late to be marked on Monday afternoon. They had been to see an aeroplane which had come down in a field near Culham.

Wallingford Boys Council School
1917, 10 September

Re-assembled after 5 weeks’ holiday. Commenced collection of Horse-Chestnuts for Ministry of Munitions of War.

Log books of King Street School, Maidenhead (C/EL77/1, pp. 399-400); Abingdon Girls CE School (C/EL 2/2, p. 147); Wallingford Boys Council School log book (SCH22/8/3, p. 63)

It is a constant source of anxiety to know if our funds will hold out til the end of the War

The people of Wargrave contributed to help for Berkshire PoWs, including sending them bread to supplement what the Germans provided.

Prisoners of War of the Royal Berkshire Regiment

It is one of the first duties laid upon us to provide for the prisoners of War of our county regiment.

A Committee, of which Rear-Admiral Cherry is Hon. Treasurer and Mrs. Mount of Wasing Place, is Hon. Secretary, has undertaken this work. In February last it was realised by the Committee that to look after the prisoners of all the seven battalions now at the front would be more than they could undertake. It was therefore decided that this committee should only deal with the 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 8th battalions – the prisoners of the 1/4, 2/4 and 7th battalions were handed over to Mrs. Hedges, 19, Castle Street, Wallingford, and the prisoners of the 6th battalion to Mrs. Dowell, 155 Malden Road, Colchester.

An appeal was sent to the Parish of Wargrave for support and Mrs. Henry Bond undertook to collect subscriptions for the fund. Mrs. Bond’s appeal has met with a ready and generous support- the amount collected by her in the parish was £101. 2s., in sums of £5 and under.

In acknowledging the cheque Mrs. Mount writes:

Wasing Place,
Reading,
August 21st.
Dear Mrs. Bond,

I really do not know how to express to you my thanks for the splendid collection you have made in Wargrave for the Royal Berks Regt. Prisoners. It is a constant source of anxiety to know if our funds will hold out til the end of the War. Our bread bill alone amounts to between £60 and £70 a month, besides which we have to find adopters for our 280 prisoners willing to pay each £21 per year for these prisoners.

Your splendid collection will go far towards removing any immediate anxiety.

Yours sincerely,
Hilda Mount.


Wargrave parish magazine, September 1917 (D/P145/28A/31)

A soliderly and workmanlike experience of camp life

Many men from west and north Berkshire had volunteered to serve in a Home Defence unit.

The Newbury Company of the 2nd Battalion of the Berkshire Volunteer Regiment went into Camp at Churn from Friday, July 13th, to Sunday the 15th, and had a very good time. This Battalion comprises men from Wallingford, Newbury, Abingdon and Wantage, and formerly went under the title of “The Home Defence Corps”. In order that we may not convey valuable information to the enemy, it would be as well not to mention the particular duties upon which the men of Newbury were on this occasion engaged. Suffice it to say that they set about them in a soldierly and workmanlike manner, and gained the approval of the Major, and Adjutant, and Captain, and other Officers.

The experience of camp life was new to a large number of those present, but there were also some seasoned veterans, who could speak of a similar experience of 20 or 30 years ago. The air of Churn is most invigorating, so much so indeed that some of the company appeared to spend a large portion of the first night in animated conversation, but were quieter the second night, though even then there were those who found sleep difficult, owing partly to the unaccustomed hardness of their bed. A religious Service was held on Sunday morning, at 9.30, by the Chaplain. The catering was done by Mr Tombs, and earned well merited praise. There are many more men in Newbury who ought to join the Battalion.

Newbury St Nicholas parish magazine, August 1917 (D/P89/28A/13)

Promoting the economical use of foods

The Education Committee was at the forefront of war savings schemes locally. School were also to be used to promote changes in people’s habits with regards to food and cookery given the food shortages resulting from the war.

Report of Berks War Savings Committee

The War Savings Committee submit the following report of their work since the report to the July meeting of the Education Committee:

In accordance with the powers given to them on appointment, the following additional members have been co-opted:

Mr G F Slade
Mr T Skurray

During July and August last… Local Committees for War Savings came into being at Abingdon, Windsor and Maidenhead. Since that date, as a result of public meetings addressed by Miss Fraser of the National War Savings Committee and the Education Secretary, Local Committees have been started at Pangbourne, Thatcham, Newbury, Wallingford, Bracknell, Hungerford and Wokingham. Up to the 31 March, War Savings Associations have been established under the control of these Local Committees as follows:

Abingdon, with 6 Associations

Wallingford, 15 Associations

Pangbourne, 4 Associations

Hungerford, 7 Associations

Newbury, 15 Associations

Thatcham, 5 Associations

Wokingham, 13 Associations

Windsor

Maidenhead, 32 Associations

Bracknell, 13 Associations

As a general rule, these local committees deal only with their immediate areas, but efforts are being made by the National War Savings Committee to secure the extension of their activities to the surrounding parishes; e.g. the Associations of Marcham and Moulsford are affiliated to the Abingdon and Wallingford Local Committees respectively, and the War Savings Associations at the Cookham, Alwyn Road Council School, and Clewer S. Stephen’s School are affiliated to the Maidenhead and Windsor Local Committees respectively, whilst the Earley CE School War Savings Association is affiliated to the Reading Central Committee.

The Associations in connexion with Windsor Castle and the Broadmoor Asylum are affiliated directly with the National Committee.

The number of War Savings Associations (in addition to the above) in the Rural Parishes formed up to the 31 March, is 56; at least one half of these are in connexion with the schools….

The average amount saved by each Association during the quarter January to March, 1917, is £217. These figures do not include the grouped Associations, and relate only to the smaller Rural Associations, where the opportunities to save are less than in the larger centres of population.

The Berks Teachers’ Association officials in January consented to help in the work, and have been successful in arousing and maintaining interest in the movement. Messrs Camburn, James and Fryer, in particular, have done most valuable service.

The National War Savings Committee have been invited by the Ministry of Food to assist in the Food Economy Campaign, and the Berks War Savings Committee have had before them the Central Committee’s suggestions for Local Authorities and War Savings Committees, and in conjunction with the School Management Sub-committee, they have approved the arrangements embodied in the following memorandum:

FOOD CAMPAIGN

The Food Controller, in conjunction with the National War Savings Committee, has suggested that “Under the auspices of the Education Authorities a Conference might be called in every area with a view to enlisting the enthusiastic support and active help of teachers. In the case of ordinary schools, the children will form a means of securing the interest of the parents, and invitations to meetings and special classes can be issued through them. The Domestic Science teachers will be wanted to take charge of such classes.

After consultation with HM Inspector, the following preliminary Scheme has been drafted:

That the Instructresses be instructed to modify their syllabus with a view:

To promote the economical use of foods of which there is an available supply in the locality.

To prepare specimen menus for family use based on the above, with notes on the quantities required to give a proper diet.

To arrange to have the cooked meals on view after the lessons, so that the mothers can see them and ask questions.

To confer with the Head Teachers of the neighbouring schools as to the best way of spreading useful information among the parents of children not in attendance at the Centres, either by inviting visits which could be regarded as object lessons or by co-operating in drawing up a scheme for simple instruction in the schools.

It is to be noted that:

While it is important to keep the full record of all meals and their cost, it is not to be expected that the employment of substitutes will effect any substantial saving in cost, as the price of substitutes must rise as the standard foods become scarce.

It is most important to give guidance as to the feeding of children, as in some families there may be a tendency to reduce the food value of their meals.

Where milk is obtainable, it will be very useful to emphasise its uses in cookery.

It is hoped to hold a conference as soon as the Instructresses have drawn up their Scheme, and it is most important that the scheme should be prepared as soon as possible.

This Conference was held on the 20th April and the preliminary steps have been already taken to start work.

Report of Education Finance Sub-committee

The Sub-committee have arranged with certain employees on Military Service, who were receiving allowances from the Committee, to invest on their behalf part of their allowances in War Savings Certificates.

Reports to Berkshire Education Committee, 28 April 1917 (C/CL/C1/1/20)

What can we substitute for bread?

The Superintendent of the county Lunatic Asylum at Cholsey was unable to restrict bread consumption by patients as much as the Food Controller demanded.

(Letter)

The Berkshire Asylum, Wallingford [sic].
February 19th 1917.

Sir,

Your circular letter of the 13th instant was read to the Committee of Visitors at their meeting on Friday last. I was instructed to reply that in the matter of the patient’s dietary only the bread allowance exceeded that set down by the Food Controller, and considering the great demand for additional supply of bread made by the patients in certain wards during the past few weeks, the Committee did not think it would be desirable to further restrict the supply of bread in the meantime.

As to the staff the matter will be further considered at the next meeting when I hope a reduction will be arranged. The difficulty, however, presents itself as to what substitutes can be given without further hampering the sea transport.

It was suggested that a lead might be given by your board to Asylums generally which would support any action taken by Committees in respect of a reduction, as they understand will be done by the L.G.B. regarding institutions under their control.

I am, Your obedient Servant.

D/H10/A6/6/1/3

15 women placed on farms in Berkshire

The numbers of men who had joined the armed forces created vacancies it was hard to fill in schools and on farms. Vocational training for schoolchildren was almost wiped out. Meanwhile Reading University was at the forefront of training women to take the pace of absent men on local farms.

Report of Education Committee, 29 April 1916

CADET TRAINING

The Chairman has attended a meeting called by the Lord Mayor at the Mansion House on 19 April for the purpose of considering a Scheme for systematic naval and military training of boys on voluntary lines.

On the suggestion of the Chairman, a small Sub-committee has been appointed to go into the matter and report to the Committee thereon and on any suggestions made by the Lord Mayor.

The Sub-committee appointed are as follows:
The Chairman of the Committee
The Vice-Chairman
The Principal of the Reading University College
with power to add to their number.

Higher Education Sub-committee report, 29 April 1916

PUPIL TEACHERS

H Humphries, a Pupil Teacher at the Roysse’s School, Abingdon, has enlisted although not yet 18 years of age, and the Sub-committee are in communication with the parent as to the payment of the fine under the terms of his agreement.

School Management Sub-committee report, 29 April 1916

TEACHING STAFF

The Sub-committee have decided that all members of the teaching staff on Military Service, including those enlisting after 6 November, shall be retained on the nominal teaching staff of their respective schools during the period of the war…

AMALGAMATION OF SCHOOLS DURING THE PERIOD OF THE WAR

The Managers of Earley Schools have agreed to amalgamate their Infants’ Department with the Mixed School for he period of the war; and this was carried into effect on 1 April.

SPECIAL SUBJECTS

The Sub-committee have decided not to take steps to fill vacancies caused by the enlistment of manual instructors. The following Centres are now closed: Bourton, Faringdon, Hungerford, Crowthorne, and Wokingham. Those at Abingdon, Wallingford and Didcot will be closed when the Instructor is called up.

The Sub-committee have approved a class in gardening at Wokingham St Sebastian’s School. The proposed class at Holyport has been postponed owing to the depletion of the staff through enlistment.

Report of Agricultural Instruction Committee, 29 April 1916

TRAINING OF WOMEN

The Berkshire Committee on Women and Farm Labour, to whom a grant has been made in aid of the training of women for farm work, has submitted a report for the quarter ended 31 March, 1916. The financial statement which accompanies the report shows that there is a balance in hand of £9.13s.0d out of the grant of £50 already made by the Council.

The Committee have, up to the present, placed 15 women on farms in Berkshire. Of this number, 8 were trained at the Reading College farm, and 3 received their instruction from the farmers by whom they are now employed. Four other women, whose services are already bespoken, are receiving instruction from farmers and will shortly be ready to commence work.

Reports of and to Berkshire Education Committee (C/CL/C1/1/19)