Progressing favourably in Egypt

Ascot churchgoers continued to think of their men in the services.

On Wednesdays there will be an address after Evensong and War Intercessions at 7.30 and also on Fridays at 11, after the Litany.

The following have written thanking the Men’s Committee for Christmas parcels safely received :–

M. Sumner, W. Roots, F. Swayne, R. Sensier, F. May, J. Nobbs, J. Siggins, J. Williams, S. Waite, E. Butler, G. Larkin, G. Andrews, A Barnard, F. Barton, H. Wilderspin, C. Berridge, G. White, E. Dunstan, G. Talbot, W. Jones.

We are very glad to hear that Fred Talbot, who was reported dangerously wounded, is now reported progressing favourably in Egypt.

The collection at Evensong on Christmas afternoon when carols were sung, amounted to £2 10s. 0d. fot St Dunstan’s Hospital for Blinded Soldiers.

Ascot section of Winkfield and Warfield Magazine, February 1918 (D/P 151/28A/10)

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A marvellous escape from an airship crash

Broad Street Church kept in contact with all its men who had joined up.

News has now been received from Air-Mechanic Fred W. Warman to the effect that he is interned at Croningen in Holland. He was acting as wireless-operator in the air-ship which came down there, and had a marvellous escape. We are glad to know that he writes in a bright and cheerful strain, and that he is trying to make the best of things.

Flight Sub-Lieut W. R. Taper of the RNAS has been appointed for duty in Malta. It has been a pleasure to see him frequently in our midst in recent weeks. The good wishes of many friends at Broad Street will go with him as he takes up his new duties.

BROTHERHOOD NOTES

Brother Woolley has consented to continue his good services by acting as correspondent with our members on service. This [is] a quiet piece of work which is bound to have its good results when things are normal again.

THE ROLL OF HONOUR

The list of our men who have responded to the call of God and King and Country. (more…)

Friends killed by one shell side by side

The toll of men killed continued relentlessly rising.

The Vicar’s Letter

My dear friends.

The war still continues to bring anxiety and sorrow to very many of our families, and our list of those who have fallen while fighting for their country keeps increasing. This month has been an especially sad one: we have lost during its course 2nd Lieut. Brian Dunlop, who died at the head of his men, just as he had reached his objective, George Maskell, the well known big drummer of our Church Lads’ Brigade, Sergeant John Parker and Lance-Corporal Alfred Dee, who were killed by one shell side by side, Joseph Corby, a regular member of our congregation, and Alfred Bowden; may they rest in peace, and may God help those who have been bereaved to bear their great trial….

Your friend and vicar,
W W Fowler

LIST OF MEN SERVING IN HIS MAJESTY’S FORCES

The following additional names have been added to our prayer list: Henry Harwood, Charles Jarvis.

In addition to those already mentioned, we especially commend the following to your prayers:

SICK OR WOUNDED: William Waite, William Wenmon, Garnett Balkwell, David Evans, William Wilder.

KILLED: Brian Dunlop, George Maskell, John Ayres, Joseph Corby, John Parker, Alfred Dee.

Earley St Peter parish magazine, September 1917 (D/P191/28A/24)

Pray for the good hand of God upon us in the war

More Earley men had joined up, while churchgoers across the county were urged to pray for army chaplains.

THE BISHOP’S MESSAGE
The following extracts are from the Bishop’s message in the October Diocesan magazine:
Your prayers are specially asked

For the National Mission….
For the good hand of God upon us in the war.
For the chaplains to the forces, especially those from this diocese.
For the wounded in hospital, especially those in this diocese, and those who minister to them…
For the supply of candidates for Holy orders, especially from among those now serving as soldiers.

LIST OF MEN SERVING IN HIS MAJESTY’S FORCES

The following additional names have been added to our prayer list:

William Waite, William Wright, Harry Cartwright, James Maxwell, Edwin Jerome, Harold White, Lionel Dunlop, Brian Dunlop, William Illsley, Albert Flower, Tom Brooks, Harry Shepherd, Albert Andrews, Robert Lewis, Harry Longshaw, Horace Gilbert, George Stacey, Maurice Love.

In addition to those already mentioned we especially commend the following to your prayers:

Killed: Alfred Bolton, Percy Howlett, Ralph Hayes Sadler.
Died: Harry Stevens.
Wounded: Jack Howlett, Percy Hamilton, George Bungay, Sidney Saunders, Leonard Rixon, Frank Jones.
Sick: William Fisher, Sidney Farmer.

Earley parish magazine, October 1916 (D/P191/28A/31/10)

More men from Reading wounded or killed

More men from Reading had joined up, while others had been killed or wounded.

Names for Intercession List:
Segt. A.R. Waite, 8th Batt R. Berks Regt. (Wounded); William Green, 19th Batt R. Fusiliers; Roland O. Norris, 114th Mahrattas; Frank Alfred Smith, R.E.; Lieut. H Field Etherington, 2nd Dragoon Guards (R.I.P.); Horace May, R.A.M.C.; Chris Beasley, 3/4 R. Berks Reg.; Henry Charles Pyke, A/P.C. (R.I.P.); Leonard Dobbie Cane, Captain 20th Batt, R.F. (R.I.P.)

Reading St Giles parish magazine, February 1916 (D/P96/28A/33)

Church Lads and Scouts join up

67 young men, once members of youth organisations in the parish of Earley St Peter, had joined the armed forces.

CHURCH LADS’ BRIGADE AND CHURCH SCOUTS

January 20th was the eight anniversary of the enrolment of our St Peter’s (Earley) Company of the CLB, and December 17th the sixth anniversary of the enrolment of our Patrol of Scouts. We are very proud to say that there are now 67 of our past and present members serving in His Majesty’s Forces, and at the Corporate Communion on Sunday, January 23rd, the list of all their names was read out and special prayers asked on their behalf. In addition to Lieutenant O’Leary, who was wounded in the autumn of 1914, the following casualties have been reported:

Killed in action – George Wright
Wounded – James Bowden (lost a leg), Reginald Waite
Wounded and gassed – Albert Ballard
Gassed – Arthur Worsfold
Sick – Harry Borroughs, Reginald Gatehouse, George Harding

There was an excellent attendance at the Corporate Communion and the collection, which amounted to £1.5s.10d, has, as usual, been sent to the CLB Ordination Candidates’ Fund.

Earley St Peter parish magazine, February 1916 (D/P191/28A/23/1)

The Broad Street Brothers continue to serve

Here is the latest list of men associated with the Broad Street Brotherhood asociated with Broad Street Congregational Church in Reading:

MEN OF THE BROTHERHOOD ON ACTIVE SERVICE, NOVEMBER 17TH, 1915

Bailey, 1932 Pte E G, 4th Royal Berks Regiment, 83rd Provisional Battery, Burnham on Crouch, Essex
Barrett, 2045 Sadler Sergt W, 4th Hants (How) Battery, RFA, Indian EF, Aden
Bishop, 4003 Corp. T E, No 1 Supernumery Comp., 4th Batt. Royal Berks Regiment, Barton Court, New Milton, Hants
Brant, 68686 Pte G P, RAMC, V Co, Hut 181, Haig Hutments, Tweseldown Camp, Surrey
Bucksey, 2697 Trooper C, 1st Berks Yeomanry, 2nd South Midland Brigade, 2nd Mounted Division, BMEF
Burgess, 100747 Sapper J, D Co, RE, Inner Lines, Brompton Barracks, Chatham
Burrett, 4005 Pte W, 4th Royal Berks Regiment, Arnould House, High Street, Lowestoft
Chapman, Sapper E, RE, Wantage Hall, Reading
Cox, 888 Dr W J, 1st Berks RHA, 2nd South Midland Brigade, 2nd Mounted Division, BEMEF
Cranfield, Pte G, 2/4th Royal Berks, B Co, 162 Upper Bridge Road, Chelmsford
Edwards, 4078 Pte H, Section 1, MT, ASC, 73rd Co, Attached 3rd Cavalry Regiment, Supply Column, EF, France
Elvin, 1702 Pte A C, RAMC, T, 4th London General Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, SE
Gooch, 2273 Corp. E, B Squadron, Berks Yeomanry, King’s Lynn, Norfolk
Gooch, 1656 Trooper Percy, 1st Berks Yeomanry (wounded)
Gooch, M2/034985, 21st Division Supply Column, 273rd Co, ASC, MT, BEF, France
Goodyear, 69005 Pioneer J, 35th Division Signal Co, RE, Bulford Camp, Wilts
Grigg, Pte C A, RAMC, 16 Radnor Street, Chelsea, London, SW
Hawting, 15775 Pte H T, 1st Batt, Royal Scots Fusiliers, B Co, 3rd Division, BEF, France
Hunt, 9215 Rifleman J, Prisoner of War, 1st Rifle Brigade, English Gefengenem, Solton Colony Konigsmoor, 14P, Hanover, Germany. Letter address only. For parcel address see another entry, No. 37.
Lambden, P134777 Pte F, 9th Co, ASC, MT, Osterly Park, Middlesex
Lay, 1910 Pte W, A Co, No 1 Platoon, 1/4th Royal Berks Regiment, BEF, France
Lee, M2/035034 Driver W R, 345 Co, ASC, MT, 25th Division Sub, Anm. Park, BEF, France
Littlewood, B, RR
Mills, 13026 Pte C, B Co, 5th Platoon, 8th Royal Berks Regiment, BEF, France
Mills, 1621 Sadler Corp. H, 3rd troop, B Squadron, Royal Berks Yeomanry, 2nd South Midland Mounted Brigade, 2nd Mounted Division, Albania Barracks, Cairo
Milner, 2678 Lance-Corp. H J, 1/6th East Surrey Regiment, E Co, Signallers, No 13 Bungalow, Kuldana, Murree, India
Parr, 71372 Sapper F C, Royal Engineers, 20 Lancaster Road, Hitchin
Pocock, 8607 Corp. E C, 4th Platoon, 33rd Division ACC, Hut 29B, F Lines, Bulford Camp
Pounds, Sergt M, Berks RHA, Reading
Richardson, 16895 Pte H J, RMLI, H Co, H3 Room, Chatham Barracks
Rolfe, Driver H E, 181, ASC, B Squad, Dorset Yeomanry, Cairo, Egypt
Smith, 10456 Pte C, 5th Royal Berks. Wounded.
Smith, L V, Friends Ambulance Unit, Army Post Office, S10, BEF, France
Ward, 1026 Pte F, C Co, 2/6th Cyclist Section, Royal Sussex Regiment, Potter Heigham, Norfolk
Waite, 13687 Gunner J H, 16 Eastney Road, Eastney, Portsmouth
Hunt, 9215 Rifleman Joseph, 1st Rifle Brigade, Konigsmoor Bie Tostedt, Kriegsgafangenew Lager, Kries Harberg, Deutschland. Prisoner of war. Parcel address only.
Shelley, 66407 Pte E, RGA
Gooch, Pte Stanley, Royal Engineers, Reading

In Memoriam
George Shearwood, 323 London Rd, who gave his life for his country whilst serving with the New Zealand Contingent in the Dardanelles
Keene, George, who after many months of service at the Front, in France, was killed whilst doing his duty in the trenches with the 1st Batt. Herts Regiment

From PSA Brotherhood
May, Brother V M, 219 Southampton Street, who was killed in action in October, with the 8th Royal Berks Regiment

Broad Street magazine, December 1915 (D/N11/12/1/14)

Who will come forward?

The parish of Ascot was keenly concerned with remembering its men in service, while coping with their lack at home.

THE WAR.

We have the following records to make.

Pte. Frederick Waite of the 3rd Batt. Royal Fusiliers has fallen in the Service of his country. Lance Corporal Stanley writes:-

“He was killed in action on the 29th of last month, doing his duty for King and country. I lost the best man in my section, and he was liked by all the platoon. We buried him the same night with his head facing the Germans.”

Our deepest sympathy is given to the family, who reside in Course Road. R.I.P.

Thomas Hudson is missing.

Percy Huxford is a prisoner of war. He writes:

“I am wounded and a prisoner. I am wounded in the fore arm, but not very bad.”

Richard Taylor is prisoner of war. He writes brightly.

The following are wounded:-
Harold Matthews, Archibald Williams Grimmett, Jack Jones, Alfred Baker, Henry Edward Freeman, Arthur Everett, Leslie Henry Walls, George Faithful, Frederick Bettison, William Skelton, Harry Henley, Frederick Wye, E.J. Streater.

The list of our Ascot men at the Front is always read out in full at the service on Wednesdays at 8 p.m. We are extremely anxious that this list should be entirely accurate. A Box for “Communications about the War” is placed on the table at the West end of the Church, in which you are invited to place any additions or corrections that may be necessary from time to time.

* * *

WHO WILL COME FORWARD to fill vacancies that stare us in the face, owing to the demands which the war makes upon the time of many of our former Church workers? We very specially need one or two Lady communicants to undertake an hour or so’s work at the Church on Saturdays mornings. We imagine that the majority of our people have a very dim conception of all that is entailed, week by week, in the preparation of the Altar, Altar Linen, and Altar Flowers for the Sundays. Moreover the Brasses have to be cleaned. On Sunday last (October 23rd) one lady, and only one, had to undertake the entire work. This ought not to be possible.

Then, we sorely need Choirmen. Even if they have not very brilliant voices, they might come and do their best, and that is all that God asks for. It would rejoice the heart of Mr. Tustin, our painstaking but handicapped Choir Master.

Then, three more Alter Servers are asked for.

* * *

WAIFS AND STRAYS SOCIETY.
This admirable organisation is holding its Annual Sale of Work, on November 10th and 11th, at the Portman Rooms, Baker Street. It has under its charge the many children of Sailors and Soldiers. Lady Jellicoe and Lady French will be present at the sale. Contributions, requests for tickets, &c. should be addressed to the Central Bazaar Secretaries, Old Town Hall, Kennington Road, S.E.

Ascot section of Winkfield District Magazine, November 1915 (D/P151/28A/7/11)

Special prayers for the war

At St Peter’s Church in Earley, worshippers prayed for the war dead, and those still serving.

Commemoration of the Dead.

We are having a special service on Monday evening, November 1st, at Evensong in commemoration of those who have died in the war and all the faithful departed, and on Tuesday, November 2nd (All Souls’ Day) a special Celebration of Holy Communion with special intention for all the faithful departed. Any members of the congregation who would like their departed friends mentioned by name are requested to send the names to one of the Clergy before Tuesday morning.

List of Men Serving in His Majesty’s Forces.

The following additional names have been added to our prayer list:-

Ralph Hunter, Harold Matson, Albert Callow, Fred Bulpit, Colin Matson, Albert King, Tom Goodard, John Barnes, Jack Newey.

The following we especially commend to your prayers:-

Wounded – Osmund Matson, Arthur Worsfold (gas poisoning), John Chandler, Eric Cook, William O’Leary, Reginald Waite, Stanley Platt.

Killed in Action – Herbert Roberts, Rex Lewin, Bert Farmer, Herbert Mileam, George Wright.

With the sanction of the Bishop we are finishing Evensong on Sundays at the 3rd Collect and having special intercessions and prayers for the war. Each Sunday we read the names of wounded, sick, missing, prisoners and killed, and on the 2nd Sunday in each month the whole list of those who are serving. We hope all parents and friends will come and pray for their beloved ones.

Of course we are still continuing the Special Celebrations on Tuesdays at 7 when the full list of names is read; and the Intercession Services on Tuesday at 8pm.

Earley St Peter parish magazine, November 1915 (D/P191/28A/22)

The men of Earley serving their country

An extremely long list of men with connections with Earley St Peter were receiving the support of parishioners’ prayers.

List of Names on the Roll of Honour and Prayer List
Duncan Adams, John Adams, Henry Adams, Frederick Allen, John Allen, Frank Allum, George Allum, George Ansell, Robert Ascroft, Frank Aust, William Ayres, Henry Ayres, Cyril Ayres, Reggie Ayres, John Ayres, James Auger, Samuel Auld, Charles Barton, William Barton, Clarence Burnett, Harry Bosley, Benjamin Bosley, Robert Beeson, Walter Bluring, Gordon Brown, Leonard Brown, Walter Brooker, Charles Baker, Ernest Balding, Albert Ballard, George Breach, Phillip Breach, Ernest Breach, Alfred Breach, Percy Bunday, George Bungay, William Bungay, Charles Bolton, Herbert Blyde, Lewis Blyde, Wilfrid Blyde, Arthur Buskin, Herbert Broadbear, Louis Bunce, Frank Berry, James Bowden, Henry Blathwayt, Harold Bennett, Harry Borroughs, Henry Barney, William Brett, Alfred Broad, Harry Ching, Charles Chesterman, George Chesterman, Ernest Chapman, Edwin Coldman, Edward Cottrell, Percy Cotterell, Hubert Collier, Alfred Cooper, George Comport, Guy Comport, Frank Cook, Ernest Cook, Eric Cook, Fernand Camus, John Cane, Charles Carpenter, Charles Clarke, William Clements, Charles Carpenter, Charles Clarke, William Clements, Charles Capel, Leonard Dann, Frederick Douglas, Reuben Dowsett, Renton Dunlop, Tom Durman, Jack Durman, Hugh Deeds, Ralph Deeds, Sidney Davis, Ralph Durand, Albert Denham, Frederick Dawson, Alfred Dee, Hugh Denton, Sidney Dormer, William Elliott, Charles Elliott, Reginald Elliott, Eric Evans, Alec Evans, Ernest Embery, Cyril Eaton, Eustace Finnes, George Forge, John Forge, Henry Fisher, George Fisher, William Fisher, John Fisher, George Fulford, Bernard Fixsen, Theodore Fixsen, William Farmer, Bert Farmer, Arthur Fulker, Cecil Fowler, William Fowles, Charles Goddard, Guy Goodliffe, Ernest Gowers, George Grey, Cecil Grey, Victor Gaines, Reginald Gatehouse, Herbert Garlick, Charles Phillips Groome, Samual Gould, Wilfrid George, Frank George, Gilbert Green, Frederick Goodger, Richard Goodall, Leslie Grinstead, Albert Howlett, Frederick Hearn, Arthur Hearn, Bert Hearn, Harry Harding, George Harding, Albert Harwood, William Harwood, George Harwood, Charles Haines, George Hitchcock, Albert Hitchcock, Henry Hayward, Percy Hamilton, Frank Hawkins, Albert Hosler, William Hall, Albert Hall, Henry Hall, George Hall, William Hall, Francis Harris, Arthur Harris, Richard Hayden, Fred Hull, Charles Hague, James Hague, Stanley Higgs, Leslie Heelas, Leonard Hedges, Harry Hambleton, Reginald Hawes, William Hope, Jack Howlett, Percy Howlett, Bertie Iles, Edward Iles, Percy Ilott, Thomas Ilott, Albert Ilott, Melville Innes, Walter Jeskins, Albert Jerome, Alfred Jerome, Walter Jerome, Frederick Jerome, George Jerome, Charles Jefferies, Henry Jones, Leopold Jenner, William Jeram, George Jeram, Henry Jeram, Woolf Joel, Alfred Jacobs, (more…)

Pray for our enemies, despite their brutality

The church of St Peter’s in Earley encouraged prayer for the enemy, despite their horror at the reports of brutality. Meanwhile, even the very poor were offering up eggs for the wounded who could eat no solid food.

Prayers for the War.

‘That men ought always to pray and not to faint’ is a divine direction which we greatly need our prayers concerning the war, both public and private. The enemy has been behaving with incredible neglect of accepted international obligations, such as restrain brutality in warfare. We are exasperated and embittered. At home there has been a good deal of complaining and mutual recrimination. Our temper is strained, and our power of holding together. Whatever else the Christian Church can do, it ought to be importunate and urgent in prayer. Prayer is our true weapon, not bitterness nor mutual reviling. We need to pray with all our soul –

1. For our country, and all classes in it, that they may behave worthily and in a spirit of thorough self-sacrifice: and that the spirit of penitence for our common and personal sins may be deepened in our approach to God;
2. For the good hand of our God upon us in the areas of war, guiding our leaders, inspiring the men, protecting them in danger, granting us victory;
3. For the wounded, the prisoners and the bereaved;
4. For our enemies and especially for the German-speaking church, that it may open its heart to the Spirit of Christ.
5. Let us commend to God those who have fallen, that He will so deal with them in the unseen world that ‘they may find mercy of the Lord at the great Day.’

I am sure, increasingly sure, that the best method of public prayer is that of bidding to prayer – with sufficient deliberation of speech – at the Holy Eucharist, and from the pulpit after sermon at Evensong, getting the people to kneel down, and allowing pauses for silent prayer. There is no special prayer for prisoners of war put out by authority. But there is the prayer in the Litany ‘for all prisoners and captives’: and before beginning the Litany we can from time to time call attention to this clause, and make a pause after the response.

Notice as to weekday services.

The celebration of Holy Communion with special Intention for the War will, as usual, be at 7am on Tuesdays, and may we remind our readers that at this Service our list of men serving in His Majesty’s Forces is always read, special prayers offered on their behalf and the collection given to the Prince of Wales Fund.

National Egg Collection.

In connection with the above, a small start has been made in Earley Parish, and during the past two weeks nearly 250 eggs have been sent to the central authority. A notification has been received stating that the first 100 were sent direct to the wounded soldiers in our immediate neighbourhood. The total number of donors last week was 25, a noticeable feature being the single eggs received from quite poor people living in Reading, and who keep but a few fowls. The eggs are collected and sent away every Thursday. Anyone who would care to help in this most useful work please communicate with Mr. H. J. Wooldridge, Earley Schools, who has very kindly undertaken the work of receiving and despatching the eggs.

List of Men Serving in His Majesty’s Forces.

The following additional names have been added to our prayer list:- Charles Chesterman, Alfread Broad, Frederick Mears, Thomas Mears, Arthur Lailey, Reginald Hawes, Elliot King, Thomas Ilott, Reginald Waite, James Auger, William Barton, William May, Hubert Shorter, Samuel Gould, Charles Phillips Groome, Harry Ching, Frank Aust and Eric Cook.

In addition to those already mentioned we especially commend the following to your prayers:-
Killed – Arthur Robb and Ernest Nickes; Wounded – Alfred Broad; Sick – Walter Jerome and Benjamin Bosley (gas poisoning).

Earley St Peter parish magazine, June 1915 (D/P191/28A/22)

“In death, they were not divided”

The people of Ascot mourned the death of some of their sons who had lost their lives at the Front – including two brothers, a soldier and a sailor, killed on the same day. They also had a military hospital in the village, and contact with well-wishers in Japan (which was an ally of the British).

Roll of Honour
Oscar William Tottie R.I.P.
Eric Harold Tottie R.I.P.
Alfred Harry Tidbury R.I.P.
Bernhard Pratt-Barlow R.I.P.

A REQUIEM EUCHARIST for our Sailors and Soldiers is celebrated on Saturdays, in All Saints Church, at 8 a.m.

THOSE AT THE FRONT.

We have to add the following names to our List in the October Magazine.

NAVY – William Walter Paxford, Stephen John Waite, Egbert Arthur Tidbury.

ARMY – Sydney George Sumner, Charles John Walls, Ernest Monk, James Johnston, George Lappage, Ernest Oram, Harry Bonnard, Matthew O’Connor, Thomas John Minns, William Brown, Paul Meakin, John Henry Baker, Robert Waight Sensier.

LIEUTENANT ERIC TOTTIE, Northumberland Fusiliers, was wounded at the Front on Sunday, September 20th, and expired in the base Hospital on the 22nd, being the same day on which his brother Lieutenant Oscar Tottie lost his life on H.M.S. Aboukir. “In death they were not divided.” We can only repeat what we ventured to say last month in regard to the elder brother. We pray that GOD will comfort the father and mother of two noble lads. R.I.P.

A Memorial Service for the two young officers was held at All Saints Church on Tuesday, October 6th. It was largely attended.

“THE SUGGESTION” in last month’s Magazine has met with a most generous response, and a family of Belgian Refugees is happily installed at Easton Villa, Kennel Ride – resting after their sad flight on foot from Antwerp a short time ago. We know they will soon have many friends, for we feel sure that all who go to see them will want to go again. Anyone wishing to pay his or her subscription direct to Mrs. Elliot and “Sandridge” will find a box on her front door on Sundays, from 10.45 a.m. to 12 noon, and from 2.45 p.m. to 4 p.m. Envelopes to contain the subscriptions (on which the Donors names must be written) will be given on application to Mrs. Elliot – who is the Hon. Treasurer for all monies subscribed for the purpose.

THE ASCOT MILITARY HOSPITAL is, at the time that we write, full to overflowing with wounded and sick Soldiers. They seem happy in their quarters; and in many cases, what with Ascot air and good treatment, their convalescence has been rapid. Already several patients have sufficiently recovered to be dismissed.
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Making the soldiers happy

Broad Street Congregational Church in the centre of Reading offered entertainment to soldiers stationed in the town.  Those members of the church’s Brotherhood organisation for men who were not themselves in service took a major role in this work:
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