Let’s hope the Germans are very hungry!

Food was an increasingly important issue as the war continued. It was true that the Germans were even more hard pressed than the British.

1 January 1917

Special standard bread to be used.

Hear through Miss McCullock’s friend who heard through S. Cadogan who was staying with Lord Derby that he said the Germans were very hungry! Also Lloyd George said it to someone else & Carson too. Let us hope it is true. Maisie tells me this.

Diary of Florence Vansittart Neale of Bisham Abbey (D/EX73/3/17/8)

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Lord Harmsworth “stirring up trouble and strife wherever he can with his infamous little rags of newspapers”

A female friend wrote to Ralph with her views on the domestic political position and the trashier end of the press. Their mutual acquaintance Major General Sir Cecil Bingham (1861-1934) had commanded the Cavalry Corps in France until it was dismantled in March 1916 and he was brought back to England.

26 St James’ Place
SW
28th March 1916

Dearest Ralph

I love getting your letters, and in imagination have written to you every week at least! But I admit my imagination occasionally is like the Yellow Man’s, so perhaps you have not received them quite regularly!! I miss you very much. I wish you were still on your old jobs in France, and popping home occasionally so that I could see you. Is there no chance of your getting home soon?

There is really very little news from home. We have passed a most uneventful spring, if the villainously cold weather of the last two months can be called spring!…

I think the Government is very rocky, and I should not be surprised if there is a split any day now over this Compulsion business. Squith [sic] has carted Eddie Derby, as he has carted everybody else. No truthful straightforward man is a match for that wily old fox. I am very glad that Carson has come back to the House during the last two days. I am sure he is the only man to form a Government if Squith does have to go. I expect they will be obliged to bring in a Compulsion Bill all round, in which case McKenna and Runciman for sure, and various others probably, will go. It is a pity you are not home, you would revel in it all.

Harmsworth has behaved quite abominably, stirring up trouble and strife wherever he can with his infamous little rags of newspapers, and at the same time trying to humbug in a dignified manner with the “Times”. It really makes one quite sick.

Military matters have been very quiet and I have heard of no rows or rumpuses. Georgie writes quite happily from billets. They had a bad time in the trenches about a month ago, but he fortunately came through it quite all right. I think what he has felt most has been the cold. He is delighted to think that the worst of this is over now.

It was bad luck for Cis Bingham losing his command, wasn’t it? He says he would not have minded so much if he could have only had one slap at the Boches with his mounted Army, but it was not to be, and now they are all split up and he is sadly at home doing nothing…

I have seen nothing of Meg for some time. I think she has been paying a prolonged visit to your parents at Peter. She will have to break out badly when she returns to London as a reaction!

I tried to let your flat for you to a lady, but she did not think it would quite meet all the necessities of her wardrobe, a nail behind the door being all that I could suggest to hang up her numerous garments. But surely now everything in Egypt has quietened down you will agitate to come home? I can’t imagine your restless spirit being content to slumber away the hours with the old Mummies and Rameseses.

The Boches are getting unpleasantly active in sinking our merchant ships, and I can’t help thinking the Authorities are getting anxious about it. If only America could be gingered up to seize all the German ships in their ports, it would help us quite enormously, as tonnage is getting very short, and daily now the Government are prohibiting fresh imports. There is no doubt about it that very soon we shall be distinctly uncomfortable, which will be a horrid crow for the old Boches.

I heard rather a nice story – which you mustn’t tell at Peter. A man appeared before a Tribunal for Exemption from Service saying “I am a soldier of the Lord!. “You are a hell of a long long way from your Barracks then” – said a voice in the background.

Goodbye dear Ralph. I wish you weren’t so far away. Take great care of yourself & come home soon.

Best love from
Edith

Letter to Ralph Glyn (D/EGL/C32/19)

The Germans’ well laid plans

Ralph Glyn’s parents both wrote to him in Egypt after a visit to the Wake family at Courteenhall, whose father had just died. Joan (1884-1974), one of the sisters of Sir Hereward (1876-1963) mentioned here, was to become a pioneering archivist. One of the Wakes claimed to have evidence that the German invasion of Belgium had been long planned in advance. The Enver referred to is Ismail Enver Pasha (1881-1922), the Turkish Minister of War who had led that country into alliance with Germany and was responsible for the Armenian Holocaust of 1915.

March 21st 1916

Yesterday we went to Courteenhall and had a cosy hour & more with the dear people. It is good to know that Hereward wishes his mother & sisters to remain on. He has bought a house in London, & is now going back to the front as Lt Colonel, on OGS 1st Grade & will be with General Mackenzie’s Division. He goes about end of April, & he is now at Aldershot taking up his new work. Ida is to be his agent for Northants property, assisted by a good bailiff, & he has secured a good man for the Essex property who can always advise Ida when necessary. Phyllis is back at work nursing at Abbeville. Joan is at home helping all round. Lady Wake pays rent, & keeps up the house…

There is a most interesting & amusing nephew of Lady Wake’s in this Hotel, a Major Wake who has seen all sorts of service in E Africa, Egypt and Ulster!! And in between a recruiting job at home & Ulster he fought [for?] Turk against Italy! While so employed he shared a tent with 3 German officers who told him their well laid plans exactly! Even to the breaking through Belgium to destroy France, knowing her Vosges defences were too strong for other swift accomplishment of victory – but France destroyed, they would take us and Holland on – no wish to destroy either as all Teutonic peoples should come into the Zollverein which would then rule the world. Our practicality was required to wed with their “idealism”, & when this union was complete “we” would together be invincible. They said they liked us, but as long as we were separate they could not do anything, & must always come up against us. They expected all their colonies to be taken, but then at the crisis our Fleet was to be destroyed, & then they would regain their colonies & seize all ours. All this was described with perfect freedom to the English soldiers, and the answer to his enquiry “What do you wish to do with us”. They said this was all open unconcealed knowledge, and that we had such a wretched Government we would never fight, & though our Govt knew they would not prepare, so the thing was “fait accompli”. (more…)

The greatest war of history still rages

The Burghfield parish magazine reported on the numbers to join up in the parish, as well as those contributing at home.

CHRISTMAS AND THE NEW YEAR
The second War Christmas has come and gone; the Angels’ message of “Peace on earth” seemed strangely out of tune with actual facts when, instead of peace, the greatest war of history still rages and there is upon the earth “distress of nations with perplexity”. Yet it served to remind us once more of what we believe was the Divine intention for mankind, and of how far, alas! man has thwarted the good purposes of God. And yet there is a sense in which the beautiful story of Bethlehem and the “Peace that passeth all understanding” must have come home to many hearts this year…

We are all, I hope, beginning the new year seriously and hopefully. The solemn act in which we are called to join on the first Sunday in the year means – in the words of our archbishop – “nothing less than the rededication to God of our life as it is, in the firm belief that He will pardon and mend and strengthen us. We brace ourselves anew, soldiers and civilians, at home and abroad, to discharge the trust of so arming and fighting and conquering as to establish hereafter among the nations of the earth a simpler life, a simpler faith, a firmer fellowship, an enduring peace”.

War Hospital Supplies Association
(Officially recognised by the War Office)

A branch in connection with Holiday House was formed early in November. Mrs George, Mrs Gripper, and Mrs Kirkwood will be glad of all the help they can get. Up to date over 400 articles have been sent into the Reading Depot. Work parties meet on Mondays, at Miss Gripper’s, and on Fridays at Holiday House, where samples and materials will be supplied. Splints, bandages, towels, pillows, bed-jackets, etc are wanted in hundreds. Contributions of money are gladly received where personal service cannot be given; and an Entertainment in aid of the fund will be given in the New Schools, by the Holiday House Dramatic Society, at the end of January.

BURGHFIELD AND THE WAR
The “Roll of Honour” hanging on the inner doors of the church has grown steadily until it now contains more than 190 names of “Burghfield men” who either (a) are or have been actually serving during this war in some naval or military capacity, or (b) have offered themselves under Lord Derby’s Scheme, have been accepted, and are enlisted in the Reserve for service in due course. No doubt the Roll is not too exclusive. On the one hand, members of any well-known old Burghfield family have been treated as admissible (under certain conditions) for enrolment, though no longer living in the parish). And, on the other hand, it was impossible to leave out men who in fact had enlisted or been called up from the parish, although they were only temporary residents, e.g. migratory labourers, employees of private persons, etc.

But, allowing for extreme cases, it is still a goodly list; and if account is also taken of the men, numbering more than 40, who since the beginning of the war have definitely offered themselves, but have been rejected as medically unfit, and of the 20 or so who have served, but are past the age of useful service, the parish may well feel some patriotic pride, saddened though we may be by the recollection of those who have given up their lives for their country.

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Thankful not to be in the trenches

Wounded officer John Wynne-Finch wrote to his brother in law Ralph Glyn from his convalescence in Wales.

John to Ralph (D/EGL/C2/3
Voelas
Bettws-y-Coed
N Wales
Jan 19th 1916
My dear Ralph

We have most certainly had a lovely long stay here. All thanks to my very “tuppenny-halfpenny” wound which refused to heal. During this time I have done a good deal of shooting, and the total bag for the year is really rather good and has beaten all previous records for the years when no pheasants have been reared. Over 1000 pheasants have been killed, and about 400 partridges, and very little shooting was done before the end of November.

The weather here has been very bad, and there have been many occasions when we have wondered how Jimmy was feeling in the North Sea. The gale here on New Year’s Day was of most unprecedented violence, and did a great deal of damage, bringing down over 100 trees in one wood alone. But owing to the war, one can luckily obtain a very good price for timber, and it is so much in demand that I have been able to sell them all, whereas in the ordinary course of events one can get no sale here on account of the cost of carriage….

The rain has also been a most tiresomely frequent visitor, as Meg found to her dismay, during the week she was here. On this account I have very often felt thankful that I was not biding my time in the trenches of Flanders….

My next Medical Board is due in a few days, when I suppose they will pass me fit for duty at Windsor, whither I suppose we shall have to go, to be there I suppose about 2 months before they send me out again.

The war news of the last few days has not been of the very best. The end of Montenegro will not help us very much in the Balkans I am afraid. I would have expected Italy to have sent troops there, because I don’t suppose it will be any help to her to have the Austrians with a longer sea-board in the Adriatic.

The Persian Gulf business also seems a very tough job. It was most awfully sad about poor Ivar. They seem to have had a very severe handling out there. Nevertheless they seem to be making a slow but sure progress, and will no doubt join up very soon.

As regards myself I have been very lucky in getting promoted Captain, after such few years’ service. But it was all due to the formation of the Guards Division and the consequent augmentation of the regimental establishments.

You probably know that Godfrey Fielding now commands the division, and Cavan has got a Corps, XIV, to which the division is shortly to be transferred, so as to be under his command.

The evacuation of Gallipoli was a most astoundingly wonderful feat; and I am simply longing to hear something about it. I often wonder now after reading the Turkish “official” communiqués what amount of truth there is in what they say as regards the booty etc, which they took. It is always difficult to believe anything these days, from whatever source it may emanate.

Maysie still keeps her pack of hounds; and Connell is as naughty and bad as possible. In the house he is no better than a travelling water-cart.

The whole country seems to be full of soldiers; and London is simply one mass of them. Those on leave from France, looking too untidy and dirty for words. One sees also very large numbers of men, of every class, wearing the khaki armlets of the Derby scheme.

I hope you are keeping fit.

Yours ever
John C Wynne Finch

Lady Mary Glyn, Ralph’s mother, also wrote to him.
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There are now very few indeed of military age who have not offered their services

Many men in Winkfield had responded to the renewed call for volunteers. Sir Thomas Berney (1893-1975), who actually lived in Norfolk, had been educated in Berkshire, at Wellington College.

PARISH NOTES

Lieut. Sir Thomas Berney has left England for the East. We trust that he, together with the now large number of our men at the front, will be remembered in our daily prayers.

Cecil Hayes-Sadler has received a well earned commission after 15 months good service as a despatch rider at the front. He obtained a few days leave home, but has now returned again to duty.

Lord Derby’s campaign for fresh recruits has met with a good response in our parish, and we believe there are now very few indeed of military age who have not offered their services. Some have been refused on medical grounds and some are waiting to be called up when their turn comes, but the following have been accepted for immediate service and have joined their regiments:-

Joseph Church, Royal Field Artillery
Daniel Taylor, Royal Garrison Artillery
Sydney Thurmer, Royal Garrison Artillery
Fred Thurmer, Royal Berks Regiment
Henry Oatway, Royal Engineers
Earnest Woodage, King’s Royal Rifles.

Privates Walter Woodage, Henry Rixon and Wallace Nickless have been wounded, but we are glad to be able to report that they are all doing well, and making a good recovery.

Lance-Corporal Charles Reed has been slightly wounded and is now home for a short rest and change.

We congratulate Lance-Corporal R. Nickless on attaining the rank of full Corporal, and Private Wallace Nickless on his promotion to Lance-Corporal.

Winkfield section of Winkfield District Magazine, December 1915 (D/P151/28A/7/12)

“I hate the press” – it prints anything, true or false, as long as it sells

Lady Mary Glyn, wife of the Bishop of Peterborough, wrote again to her son Ralph with news from home. She loathed the British press, particularly the empire of Lord Harmsworth.

Monday Dec 6th

Dad … had the Service of Intercession in the Chapel at 3. Many come to it most regularly and one gets to know who are in the one comradeship of these days.

The Baghdad news is sore reading and I think of Syb and all the dread anxiety for her.

We hear little or nothing here, and perhaps it is as well. The “WJ” is the only cheering paper today – it gives an account of conditions which show why the Bosch is anxious to make peace, & the Reserves they are calling up. Rumania [sic] & the ships is the other news, & I have no light on it. It will be known when you get this….

It looks very like Conscription today. Thomas speaks up as to the shortage under Lord Derby’s Scheme & calls for a great last effort.

A good letter from “Wounded” in the Times almost makes me believe the Harmsworth Press to be not so evil as I now think it is. But I always hate the press and its ways, and greed for “copy” and for sale of news, good or bad, true or false, if only it sells – & pays…
There is to be a great Memorial Service in St Martin’s Leicester for the 4th Leicesters on Friday, and I hope to go with Dad. He is to preach, & I hope will only say a few calm strong words & not preach a sermon…

Letter from Lady Mary Glyn to her son Ralph (D/EGL/C2/2)

Pray for a deepened sense of national unity

The Mayor of Newbury (Frank Bazett, a local solicitor) led the way in volunteering for the armed forces as the war’s second Christmas approached.

It is rather difficult this year to look forward as we ought to do to Christmas: there is so much to sadden the gladness of the festival…

The following subjects for Intercession are taken from the Bishop’s Message in the November number of the Diocesan Magazine.

Your prayers are specially asked:

For our country and our government in the present crisis.
For the maintenance of our courage and faith.
For a deepened sense of national unity and mutual understanding between capital and labour.
For those from the Diocese who are serving as chaplains in the Fleet and the Army.
For the remnant of the Armenian nation….

May we be permitted to congratulate the Mayor of Newbury for his patriotic action in joining His Majesty’s Forces, and that at considerable sacrifice, thus setting a good example for other men to follow.

Lord Derby’s recruiting scheme has resulted in a number of young men enlisting from Newbury, and doubtless there are others who will go. Among those who have been accepted are Mr G P Hopson, Mr A Hill, Mr L Cramp, and Mr R J Drewell, four of our servers, and Mr Winkworth, a member of the Men’s Bible Class. Mr G L Pyke has been rejected on account of his eyes, his brother, Mr Cecil Pyke, one of our Sunday School teachers, has been accepted for service at home, and Mr R Bell has been rejected. All honour to those who have tried as well as to those who have been accepted, for they have shown their willingness to serve their country in her need.

May we ask relatives for any interesting news about men at the Front, for insertion in the Parish Magazine.

Newbury parish magazine, December 1915 (D/P89/28A/13)

“I wonder what the Archangel Michael thinks of destroyers and aeroplanes”

The Bishop of Peterborough and his wife wrote to their son Ralph, serving in the Dardanelles, with the latest news of political developments at home, and an encounter with two disillusioned soldiers serving with the Canadian forces. See here for more about Munro.

Nov 13 [1915]
The Palace
Peterborough

My darling Ralph

Thank you so much for your great letter to me of Nov 2nd & telling us of your going off in the Destroyer on work – & that we possibly may catch you by a letter to Marseilles – so here it is.
You will indeed have a good experience – & going about in this way will be full of new interest – but I can understand your reluctance to leave General Headquarters. I see that General Munro is gone to Salonika, & when I saw it in today’s papers, I wondered if you would have gone there with him – but you will not have gone off on your “destroyer cruise” before he left.

Everyone tells us that Munro is first rate & I heard also that in France he did a job that Haig got praised for & held a tough corner & saved us at one time, & then was not as fully appreciated for it as he should have been.

Your name appears in today’s Times, with K’s and 3 or 4 others, as “persecuted” by HM to wear your Servian & Russian orders – so there you are!

God bless & keep you
Your loving father
E C Peterborough
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The best news since war began

Various letters from family members to Ralph Glyn discuss war news and life on the Home Front. Ralph’s sister Meg told him about her naval husband’s latest visit home. He was not terribly impressed by his father in law the bishop’s involvement with Missions to Seamen.

23 Wilton Place Nov. 12th
My darling Ralph

To my great joy Jim came home for breakfast again yesterday, having brought Royalist in to Newcastle to be made into a Capt D’s ship. Yesterday morning he went to the Admiralty & found that they are agitating there to give him the Constance still, so things are rather hung up at present.

Yesterday evening the parents & Maysie & John came to dinner, & we had quite an amusing evening. The parents… had just had a meeting in Peterborough for the Missions to Seamen & collected £100.

“A What?” said Jim.
“A missionary meeting” says Mammie.
“What for?” said Jim.
“To convert seamen”, says Dad.
“What into?” said Jim, & then asked if he couldn’t convert the £100 into his pocket.

Maysie ordered your cigarettes, & I went to Fortnum, & in future they are going to send you small consignments of picked things in plain boxes so I hope they’ll turn up alright, & I have countermanded that large order of mess things. Mother has asked me to get you some magazines which I am going to do today, & I’ll also send you a couple of 1/- or 7d books.

I lunched with Aunt Syb one day. The butler has enlisted, & Ivar has gone with his Division to Mesopotamia, but he couldn’t get any leave to come home first which was hard luck….

Today Asquith has promised we shall have Compulsory Service by Nov. 30th if more men don’t come forward. That’s the best news I’ve heard since war began, it would really almost be patriotic to stop men enlisting for the next fortnight if one could!…

Your very loving Meg

Ralph and Meg’s mother Lady Mary wrote:

The Palace
Peterborough

Nov. 12 1915

My own darling…
Ivar [Campbell, Lady Mary’s nephew] gone to Mesopotamia & no leave before he went but I hear he went in good spirits & preferring it to Flanders swamps….

Anne [Meg’s little girl] loved getting a letter from you. Did you hear of her reproof when Nannie told her not to waste food in wartime?
“It is not wartime, it is teatime.” …
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“The Government are now told the truth and they quite like it”

General Callwell reported on the latest changes at the top, with a new sense of realism facing the Government – and absolutely everyone hoping to get rid of Lord Kitchener despite his popularity with the general public.

26 Campden House Chambers
Campden Hill, W

12th November 1915

My dear Ralph,

You are in the thick of things at Mudros. We cannot yet quite make out whether old man K proposes to evacuate Gallipoli or not altogether, but the PM is a fairly downy cove too and I think that we shall get the great man’s intentions out of him. Unless the decision is evacuation there will be a turn-up in the Government as a good many of them were very angry at Monro’s recommendation to clear out not being accepted after he had been sent out with a free hand. By latest news we have frightened the French as to their position up the Vardar valley with the possibility of the Greeks turning nasty and they are inclined to come back out of that, which will be a good thing.

The new plan of a War Council of reasonable dimensions with the sailor-0mean and us properly represented is a great step in advance and the General Staff gets quite a good look in and is listened to. The Government are now told the truth and they quite like it. Archie Murray deserves great credit for pulling things together. I have now got in Bird as Sub-Director in charge of MOI, which takes a lot of work off my hands. Buckley going off with K has been a great nuisance to me as he was my right hand man in many things, but one rubs along somehow and I suppose he will turn up again some time.

We have no idea whether K will return to the War Office. Nobody in it wishes to see him back and I do not think that anybody in the Government does either – even such mighty opposites as “Lulu” and Lloyd George are agreed upon that point. But the Public have implicit belief in him and he may prove a little difficult to definitely shelve.

I hope that you are keeping very fit and are finding adequate outlet for your inexhaustible energy.

Yours ever
Chas E Callwell

Meanwhile Ralph’s proposals for books to be sent from Scotland to the Dardanelles was bearing enthusiastic fruit. (more…)

Ex parte reports are not quite cricket

Ralph Glyn’s officer friend Stephen Pollen had returned from the Dardanelles.

28, Hyde Park Gardens
Nov. 9th [1915]

Dear Glyn

I am so sorry to have just missed you. It was so kind of you to have burdened yourself with a parcel for me & I am only glad to think your trouble was not wasted & that the coat is useful to you.

Many thanks, too, for the cheque although I don’t see why you should pay me a full price for a second-hand article! It is no use writing you all we hear here of what is in the melting-pot about the MEF. The centre of decision & the Decider have shifted to your GHQ.

I am to remain & assist Sir I.H. to finish off his despatches &c, & shall, I fancy, not be available for a few weeks more as we are waiting on various documents from your side. Subla [sic] Bay complicates the matter as ex parte reports have been received at WO & apparently have no small influence which is not quite cricket.

I would have liked to see the show through. It is nice to be home but not nice to come in the way one did! And what a difference being “in” it & “out”! The fortune of war & its no use lamenting.

I hope to be usefully employed again – & after all in this war, if one can be that it should be enough…

Yrs ever
S H Pollen

Mind you make use of me if there is anything you would like done.

Meanwhile a Scottish writer had taken up an idea Ralph had put forward to improve the supply of reading material for the troops.
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Everyone is loud in criticising the Government

Meg Meade and her husband were blissfully happy while he was home on leave. She wrote to her brother to tell him about the national mood – one of anti-Government – and chaos with shipbuilders having to be unrecruited from the armed forces.

30th Oct
23 Wilton Place

My darling Ralph

Since last writing to you I haven’t written any letters. You know what it is with at home. We are out all day & if we are at home alone together, Jim reads to me. There’s a picture of domestic bliss!…

Will you thank Willie so very much for his letter. I am sending 100 cigarettes & some tobacco under cover to you. The cigarettes are his, & could you have the tobacco? As Maysie who I asked to settle up with Major Wigram about sending these things in the bag says that they make a great favour of sending anything in the bag, which is annoying, & Maysie fiercely refuses to allow me to send more this time. I am sending the rest of Willie’s order by post immediately….

Jim goes tomorrow (Sunday) night or Monday.

I did give Sir Ed. Carson your letter. Everyone is loud in criticizing the Government, but that don’t seem to move them. We lunched with Edith yesterday & met Lord Derby there. He said he had just received a letter signed by 6 men saying they would rejoin their regiments & enlist the moment that F E Smith was sent back to rejoin his regiment instead of sitting at home on a salary of £20,000, or whatever he gets! Lord Derby had some very amusing stories of Mrs Asquith. Sir John French went to see her, & she threw her arms around his neck & said, “Oh John, John, how splendid you are, but what a lot of worry you give Henry!” She also wrote to Lord Derby & asked him to spare “Henry”’s chauffeur, valet & footmen, as he being Prime Minister, his comfort was essential, so she asked Lord Derby to see they were not recruited. Lord Derby said that he expected we’d have conscription in 6 weeks time, but that’s too good to be true. He said that when he came to work his job, he found the most awful chaos, all the men who had been “starred” on the pink papers ought not to have been, & the ones unstarred ought to have been starred. By some oversight none of the shipbuilders in Cammell Laird’s yards were starred, so they could have been enlisting as hard as they could, & in consequence a certain new light cruiser called the Constance which Jim thought he’d a chance of getting has been tremendously delayed, & they are having to bring the men back to the yards again. Another employer wrote to say “all his men were starred, but they ought to be unstarred”. The WO left the “starring” business to the local recruiting people, who seem to have starred anyone who gave them half a crown.

I wonder if you have heard that Jim is to be a Captain D1! & have 20 of the newest & latest destroyers under him. Captain D of 12th Flotilla he will be, & he keeps the Royalist according to present arrangements. Isn’t it splendid. Royalist will have to be fitted out as a D’s ship, so I hope it won’t be 7 months before I see him again. He will take the new destroyers as they are turned out.

…Maysie & John are still at Bruton Street. He’s alright practically again except for his face. The abcess in the jaw. They are going to cut out the bit of dead bone on Monday, & he has been given 2 months to recover in, so that’s good….

We live in fogs now. No Zepps have penetrated to London lately although they visited Chatham I hear in the night before last….

Meg

Letter from Meg Meade to Ralph Glyn (D/EGL/C2/2)