Those who go short will only have themselves to thank

Fuel for household heating was in ever shorter supply.

Fuel

Everybody who can do so is strongly advised to lay in as much wood as possible against the winter. The supply of coal will probably run short. Many people have already fetched a good deal of “top and lop” from the tree-felling on the common. But there must still be some which it is permitted to take, although so much has been actually burnt on the spot. This has seemed to be shocking waste at this time, when we are told to economise fuel in every way. But we understand that the ground has to be cleared for re-planting; and the Government (who are responsible – not the landowners, who have nothing to do with it) having allowed a certain time for removal of the best stuff, gave orders for the destruction of the remainder. Those who go short will only have themselves to thank.

Burghfield parish magazine, November 1918 (D/EX725/4)

There is no British heart that will not swell with gratitude

Maidenhead Congregational Church anticipated the end of the war.

THE WAR.

Since the last issue of our Magazine things have moved on with astonishing rapidity, and at the moment of writing it looks as though the end were fast approaching, and that it will prove a complete victory for the Allies. There is no British heart that will not swell with gratitude. Looking back across the past four years it has been a perilous and tragic time. And now there will be the almost equally important future of reconstruction to face. Did any body of men, since the world began, ever have entrusted to them a graver and grander task than that which is now, in the providence of God, being allotted to the Peace Conference?

The Archbishop of Canterbury has addressed a letter to the “Times,” in which he says,

“Upon all whom my words may reach I would urge the duty of being instant in prayer. Remember before God the statesmen on either side the sea, upon whom rests a burden of responsibility greater perhaps than ever before. The issues may speedily become critical beyond all words. On their firm handling of these issues may depend under God the future of the world. Pray, then, that they may be endued with a large vision of what is just and right, and may act worthily to the trust, we hold for the generations yet unborn.”

There is surely no fitter subject upon which Christians of every name should concentrate just now in prayer.

OUR SOLDIERS.

We regret to say that the wife of T. W. Mulford has applied for leave to return from Egypt to make arrangements about his children, and is probably on the way home at the present time. Ernest Bristow has had another slight operation to his leg, and is again at Cliveden Hospital. Hugh Lewis is at home on leave, in excellent health. Herbert Brand has been wounded, and is in hospital in England.

THE CHURCHES AND COAL ECONOMY.

The Fuel Controller does not seem to have taken counsel with wisdom in asking Churches to abandon evening services to save coal and light. He did not pause to reflect that if a building is heated for morning and afternoon services, it does not require any further fuel for the evening, and that considerably less light is consumed in Church than would be used by the people if they all remained in their own homes. In the interests of national economy, perhaps it would be well to issue an order that everyone should attend public worship every Sunday evening during the winter!


Maidenhead Congregational Church magazine, November 1918 (D/N33/12/1/5)

Churches are to be rationed

Churches feared a chilly winter to come.

THE COAL SHORTAGE.

The shortage of coal may possibly be a serious matter for places of worship this winter. We are distinctly told that Churches are to be rationed, though the method has not yet been made public. Several months ago the deacons appointed a sub-committee to consider the question of our fuel supply and economy, and certain alterations in the method of heating our premises are recommended. When our Church was first erected no provision for heating was made; apparently in those days all places of worship were left at the mercy of the seasons, our fathers being content, it would seem, with an extra coat! But in these days a cold Church would be left empty. Hugh Bourne, one of the Primitive Methodist founders, on a freezing morning when then the chapel stove refused to draw, observed, “I never knew a sinner yet who was converted with cold feet.”

Maidenhead Congregational Church magazine, September 1918 (D/N33/12/1/5)

A necessity & convenience in these times

Anthracite is a particularly efficient kind of coal.

13th September 1918

Anthracite Stoves.

It was proposed by Colonel Muir that in view of economy of coal, & as a necessity & convenience in these times, anthracite stoves be provided for the night nurse in the dining room, and one in the matron’s room. It was resolved that Col Muir be authorized to carry out the proposal, exercising his discretion until repaid to the expenditure.

Maidenhead Cottage Hospital governors’ minutes (D/H1/1/2, p. 364)

Two candles instead of three

A Berkshire church cut down on candles due to rising wartime prices.

ST PETER’S

An important meeting of the Church Committee was held in Furze Platt Club Room at 8 pm on July 9th. Certain changes and improvements were agreed upon, but owing to the war, the Vicar was only able to promise them provisionally. First, for economy’s sake (except on Festivals), we are going to light the two Altar candles instead of the three-branched ones, and extinguish them after the Third Collect. This begins in August…

Maidenhead St Luke parish magazine, August 1918 (D/P181/28A/27)

“All possible economy must be effected”

The economic cost of the war affected every aspect of life at home.

The Church Accounts, 1917-1918.

Wargrave Vicarage,
April 20th, 1918.

My dear Friends,

We now have the pleasure of publishing the parochial accounts for the year ending at Easter, 1918.

The income for which they account to £623 as against £542 11s. 0d. the increase of subscriptions is partly due to the inclusion of all the Churchyard Accounts of which only part has been included in previous years, but this makes an addition of only £19 12s. 0d., and the remainder is due to increased support. The increased church collections is to some extent attributable to the addition of two Organ Recitals, £20 16s. 6d, but to the very generous response to special appeals, as in the case of the Red Cross, £36 5s. 0d, but the general level of weekly offertories has been distinctly higher and the result is most pleasing.

The increased income is balanced on the expenditure side by additions to salaries and the heavy cost of fuel.

Sir William Cain’s gifts are distributed so widely in the parish that his liberality is known to all and everyone in Wargrave has reason to be grateful for them, they have for instance made the V.A.D. Hospital possible, on its present scale…

A copy of the statement of accounts is to be sent to every subscriber, but no copies are to be included with the parish magazines as in former years, because all possible economy must be effected in printing and paper. The Schedule of Special Offertories will however be inserted in the magazine together with this letter.

I remain faithfully yours,

STEPHEN M. WINTER

Wargrave parish magazine, May 1918 (D/P145/28A/31)

In war time we dissipate and destroy national wealth

A Reading vicar observed the increase in public spending due to the costs of the war.

Notes from the Vicar

Financial Brevities

Our pre-War expenditure averaged 200 millions per annum.

Our present expenditure averages 2,500 millions per annum.

This great increase produces artificial prosperity. Why Artificial?
In peace time we accumulate and add to national wealth. In War time we dissipate and destroy national wealth.

When we save and lend to the state (i.e. ourselves), we benefit our soldiers, sailors, airmen, shipping, and ease every industrial problem. When we spend unnecessarily exactly the reverse happens. The National Debt before hostilities begun averaged roughly £40 per head of population. It now averages roughly £100 per head.

During Reading’s “Monitor” Week, March 4th to 9th, it is desired to raise at least £250,000 (£2 10s. per head of greater Reading population) by the sale of War Bonds and War Saving Certificates.

Therefore: Buy bonds; or if you have bought some, buy some more, and remember S. Giles’ Parish Hall Fund is hungry for them if you will make the gift through Col. Poulton, the Hon. Treasurer, of the Vicar.
A.W.T.

Reading St Giles parish magazine, March 1918 (D/P96/28A/35)

The pinch will come after the war

The Spencer paterfamilias in Cookham was optimistic, while Florence Vansittart Neale despaired at the situation in Russia.

Will Spencer
23 February 1918

By this morning’s post we received a cheerful letter from Father… Sydney has taken his BA at Oxford. Has received splendid reports from his commanding officers. Was just getting into train at Paddington to come down to Cookham on a Saturday afternoon when he saw Percy on the next platform, whom he hadn’t seen for 2 years. He quickly fetched his luggage out, & stayed the night with Percy, who had just come up from Swindon for a few days, on business.

I was glad to learn from Father that they suffer no privation. The pinch will come after the war, he says, but what can be is being done to provide against that.

Florence Vansittart Neale
23 February 1918

Russians utter degradation, under the heel of Germany.

Diaries of Will Spencer in Switzerland (D/EX801/28); and Florence Vansittart Neale of Bisham Abbey (D/EX73/3/17/8)

Short courses in War-time Economy

Adult education tried to meet wartime needs.

WAR-TIME ECONOMY.

Short courses in War-time Economy will be held at University College, Reading, as follows:-

A. War-time Cookery Demonstrations.
(How to make the best use of rationed foodstuffs)
A course of 13 demonstrations on Tuesdays at 2.30 p.m., viz.: 6 weekly demonstrations beginning on February 6th, 1918 (fee 5/-), followed by 7 weekly demonstrations beginning on April 30th, 1918 (fee 5/-).

B. Dressmaking and Renovating.
(How to economise in clothes)
A course of 13 classes on Mondays, 2-30 to 4-30 p.m., viz.: 6 weekly classes beginning on February 4th, 1918 (fee 5/-), followed by 7 weekly classes beginning on April 29th, 1918 (fee 5/-1).

C. Making and Mending in the House.
(How to repair, restore, and adapt household effects for further service)
A course of 13 classes on Tuesdays, 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., viz.: 6 weekly classes beginning on February 5th, 1918 (fee 5/-), followed by 7 weekly classes beginning on April 30th, 1918 (fee 5/-).

Advertisement included in Reading St Mary parish magazine, February 1918 (D/P98/28A/13)

Hope for a people braver and stronger and more God-fearing for the long years of sacrifice and sorrow

A special Christmas letter from Mrs Willink offered kindly advice to the members of Burghfield Mothers’ Union.

Hillfields, Xmas 1917

Dear [blank]

In these days when the shadow of war and suffering and death seems constantly with us, the good wishes for a joyful Christmas seem almost out of place. But I feel I must send a little message of affection and friendship to my dear members of the Mothers’ Union.
I say to you all be of good courage, and may God give you that inward happiness and serenity which surely comes to those who live near him. May He fill our hearts with light and peace, so that if sorrow or loss or accident come to us we may bear them unshaken and accept them as if they were straws on the tide of life.

Bless our absent ones, keep them in life, keep them in growing honour; and, for us, grant that we may be worthy of their love. We civilians at home for whom there are no supreme moments of daring and sacrifice can yet constantly keep our courage at a high level. It has been said that victory is ultimately won, not by the troops in action, but by the spirit of the nation behind them.

We who stay at home have the duty of preserving, for those who are fighting, that heritage for which they are laying down their lives.
Dear wives and mothers, let it be your work to keep your homes sweet and clean, so that when the men and the lads come back, they may find that best happiness, a home of love and welcome ready for them. This can only be done by some self-sacrifice now; food is short, and it will grow shorter, and it is only by strict economy and thought and trouble that the food difficulty can be met, try and buy as many substitutes as you can for bread, meat and sugar, and take pains in cooking them, and you will be helping the War. You are such clever housewives that I am sure you will be able to do so.

I should also like to say especially to the Mothers’ Union members, that they should at this time do all in their power to help and influence others outside the Union, by little acts of kindness and sympathy, and by such example as can shew those others what our Union stands for, and try and persuade them to think seriously as to what it means, and perhaps in time to join it.

“In quietness and confidence shall be your strength,” and may the Christmas message of glad tidings give us that strength to work – and be patient, and kind, and helpful, and self-forgetful in the New Year that is coming, and then we may hope that the blessing of peace will return, and find a people braver and stronger and more God-fearing for the long years of sacrifice and sorrow.

Believe me always

Your true friend
Mary G Willink

Special Christmas letter inserted in and probably distributed with the January 1918 parish magazine, Burghfield (D/EX725/4)

The war has brought in its train many economies over which we need waste no lamentations

The women and children of Burghfield were continuing to contribute to the war effort. The children’s collection of horse chestnuts was ready to send to be made into munitions, while the women sewed. But they were saddened that a local convalescent home had been forced to close due to the economic conditions.

Chestnuts
The centres for collection are the New Schools (Burghfield C of E) and Mrs Bland’s School. The whole will eventually be stored at the former School until sent for by the Director of Propellant Supplies, 32 Old Queen Street, London, SW1.

Holiday House
Not every village is fortunate enough to possess such an institute as Holiday House, though it is coming to be felt more and more that some such centre is needed in villages, where people may meet each other and relieve the monotony of the long dark winter evenings…

That Burghfield Common has such a place is entirely due to the generosity and public spirit of a lady who has the welfare of the Common very much at heart, Mrs Kirkwood. Founded in 1914, it has been the home and centre of varied activities: a band, Boy Scouts, dances, socials, entertainments, lectures, debates, are some of the chief, besides its nightly bill of fare of billiards, draughts, cards, etc. Not by any means the least of its activities have been the War-work Party started early in the war to make shirts and other necessary garments for the wounded, and also splints, bed trays and various other appliances. There is also a canteen, under the care of Mrs Bailey, who supplies refreshments and tobacco to all comers; but no alcoholic drinks are allowed on the premises.

St Catherine’s, Burghfield Common

The war has brought in its train many economies over which we need waste no lamentations. Other economies, however, cannot be passed over without a sigh. We allude, more particularly, to those which have lessened the power of people of moderate means to continue their contributions to charitable institutions…

It is therefore with peculiar regret that we have to record the closing of St Catherine’s. This Home was founded in 1913 by Miss Morison, and was offered by her to the Margaret Street Hospital for Consumption (Cavendish Square, W) for the benefit of girls and women in the early stages of tuberculosis….

From first to last no less than 130 patients have passed through the Home, and in the large majority of cases they have been discharged completely cured, or with the progress of the disease arrested. When we think of the wonderful air which those of the uplands of Burghfield are privileged to enjoy, it is not so very surprising to learn that the number of patients who got worse instead of better may be told on the fingers of one hand. It is a matter of grief to us all that Miss Morison has found it necessary to limit her beneficent work in the great crusade against what is so graphically called the “White Scourge” of these islands.

War Hospital Supplies
The Red Cross Working Party has re-commenced its meetings at the Rectory on Wednesday afternoons at 2.30. Mrs George will be glad to have some new members as the War Hospitals Supply Depot in Reading is urgently appealing for more comforts for our soldiers and sailors, ad we are anxious to send as much work as possible from Burghfield.

Burghfield parish magazine, November 1917 (D/EX725/4)

Women “have proved that they can do many things which did not occur to them before the war”

The Burghfield parish magazine reported on various changes the war had brought to the parish.

Other matters connected with the War

a) The war savings movement has done well in Berkshire, chiefly owing to the efforts of Mr. W.C.F. Anderson, of Hermitts Hill, the Secretary of the County Committee. An Association stared in Burghfield in the spring, now numbers 106 members, and 128 certificates have been sold. It is hoped to combine this with Associations at Mortimer and Theale under a “Local Committee,” on the system adopted elsewhere. Already over 106,000,000 has been raised, and over 35,560 Associations formed, throughout the country: and the National Committee are arranging for a vigorous Autumn campaign.

b) As in other parishes, occupiers of agricultural land have been called upon to consider the possibilities of breaking up pasture into arable. And the County War Agricultural Committee, acting through the Bradfield District sub committee, have found the farmers and owners of land in Burghfield no less ready to answer this call of their country than the King has found the young men ready for the hardships of war.

c) “War Economy” has of course received much attention: and it is hoped that in every house efforts have been made to economize in food, clothing, and expenditure generally. Meetings have been held and literature circulated. The duty of promoting economies, which at first was imposed upon War Savings Associations, has been transferred with other duties to the Food Control Committees appointed by the District Councils. The collection of horse-chestnuts has been entrusted chiefly to the School authorities, and directions given. It appears that every ton of chestnuts, in proper condition, released half-ton of corn which would otherwise be required for the manufacture of propellant explosive.

Women Workers on the Land

We are pleased to see how well the Burghfield women have come forward to work on the land and to endeavour to replace the men who have been called to serve their country. They have proved that they can do many things which did not occur to them before the war; and are now doing good work milking and generally helping to produce food. There are now 21 women working regularly, two of whom have been imported.

Burghfield parish magazine, October 1917 (D/EX725/4)

“Personally, my hopes lie in the Constituent Assembly choosing a Constitutional Monarchy” in Russia

Customary insistence that churchgoers should wear their Sunday best had gone by the wayside.

Dear Friends and Parishioners,-

This short line comes to greet you in the midst of what I hope will be pleasant summer weather. The very beauty of Nature around us must make us in our green Island think of the goodness of God’s bounty to us all ; and it must in our thankfulness suggest to us how great our sympathy should be with all those of our kith and kin, who in weariness too often, in hardship too frequent, are on our behalf in the shell-scarred, dusty, noisome trenches of many foreign lands.

I would not exhort, as Vicar, for just now we are all very ready to stir each other up to action, but I would rather beg of you as a fellow worshipper, that we should try not to grow weary or fainthearted in our prayers for those we love, whether at home or in Church. St Luke’s Church is open always from 8 am to 6 pm, later on Fridays and Sundays; St Peter’s is open, too. Those who cannot find a quiet corner at home, can find one there. Working clothes do not matter; God wants our hearts, not fine clothes.

There is, too, the War Shrine to provide a centre for our prayers. And many could come to the weekly Friday Intercession Service. We have to remember that life is not the only boon we can ask for those we love but that honour, purity, and straightforwardness are even greater things. I think we are all doing this pretty well; but I suppose we could none of us honestly say we could not do a great deal better…

Now may I say one ward as regards Treats, etc. The War certainly imposes on us the need for great economy. All expenses should, so far as possible, be cut down. But the War has already lasted nearly three years, and owing to the Republican disorder in Russia, the hope of an early Peace has faded away; though the entry of the United States into the War has made more certain than ever before a full and final victory. We must all hope for a speedy settlement in the land of our great Russian Ally; personally, my hopes lie in the Constituent Assembly choosing a Constitutional Monarchy.

So, many children are fast growing up without much memory of the peaceful days before the War. For them there should be, I think, very simple and economic Treats. I hope those who agree with me will support our Sunday School Fund during this month. I feel that the Mothers are another class who should have some little outing, as cheap as possible, of course, still a little change from the daily work and anxiety…

I remain, Your faithful friend and Vicar

C.E.M. FRY

Maidenhead St Luke parish magazine, July 1917 (D/P181/28A/26)

Totally blinded

The County Education Committee continued to find its work affected by the war in many ways, as teachers joined up, prices rose, and they helped people cope with shortages of staple foods.

School Management Sub-committee

SCHOLARSHIPS

Mr F Portas, who has for four years held a Supplementary University Scholarship, has now completed his medical course and passed the final examinations of the Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons. He is now serving in the RAMC. Mr Portas, prior to receiving a Guthrie Scholarship at Westminster Hospital, held a County Scholarship at the Windsor County Boys’ School, where he received his school education.

DOMESTIC ECONOMY

The demand for Sicknursing Classes which have been conducted by Miss Barrett since 1896, has during the last year ceased, chiefly on account of circumstances arising from the war, and the Sub-committee have received the resignation of Miss Barrett.

The Sub-committee desire to record their appreciation of Miss Barrett’s useful work. For twenty years the classes have been held in almost every town and village in the county, and have always been well attended and greatly appreciated.

Higher Education Sub-committee

TEACHERS ON MILITARY SERVICE

Under an arrangement between the Board of Education and the War Office, the following teachers in the lower medical categories have been released from the Army to resume their school work: Mr H May, Mr W Edginton, and Mr B Gibbons.

The Sub-committee record with regret that Mr F W Lupton has been killed in action, and Mr F E Parker has been totally blinded.

SCHOOL SUPPLIES

The Educational Supply Association have given one month’s notice to terminate on 11 May the present schedule of prices on which school materials are supplied; but will submit a revised schedule before that date.

The Contractors for Needlework Supplies have also notified further increases in the prices of some materials, and Messrs Charles & Son have raised their prices for paper goods to 100% above pre-war figures.

NATIONAL SERVICE

The Sub-committee have passed the following resolution:

In view of the fact that the Local Education Authority is of opinion that teachers are engaged in work of national importance, the Local Education authority will be unable to give any guarantee to any teacher called up that his or her place will be kept open.

FOOD ECONOMY CAMPAIGN

The Sub-committee have considered and approved a memorandum of the Education Secretary, referred to them by the War Savings Committee, with regard to the use of the Committee’s Cookery Centres for making known the best way of utilising as foods such substitutes for wheat as are available locally.

Reports of School Management Sub-committee and Higher Education Sub-committee to Berkshire Education Committee, 28 April 1917 (C/CL/C1/1/20)

Wartime cookery

Wargrave villagers were interested in how to cope with food shortages.

Food Economy

A very successful meeting was held on Thursday, April 19th, in the Iron Church Building, by kind permission of the owners. Lady Nott-Bower represented the Ministry of Food in London, and made an admirable speech. There was accommodation for two hundred and fifty people and there were very few vacant chairs.

A collection of recipes suitable for War-time cookery is always on exhibition in the Parish Room.

Mrs. Winter will be very glad to receive recipes, which have been found successful, to add to the collection.

The Committee will be very pleased to receive suggestions as to any way in which it may be thought that they could give useful help.

Wargrave parish magazine, May 1917 (D/P145/28A/31)